Material Study – Part 1

Materials shape the conceptual ideas of  buildings into reality. With edvancemet in technology the number of building materails have increased. So while preparing for the enterance exam  one needs to study about the basics of different building materials and substances. Given that it is an enterance exam for a graduation course the level of study will be basic. So the different types of materails are as follows :-

  • BRICK 

Brick is a small rectangular block typically made of fired or sun-dried clay, used in building. A brick can be composed of clay-bearing soil, sand, and lime, or concrete materials. Bricks are produced in numerous classes, types, materials, and sizes which vary with region and time period, and are produced in bulk quantities. Two basic categories of bricks are fired and non-fired bricks.

Constituents –

  1. Lime
  2. Silica
  3. Oxide of Iron
  4. Magnesia
  5. Alumina
  • Metal

A metal is a material that is typically hard, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity. Metals are generally malleable as well as fusible and ductile.

Metals are shaped by processes such as –

  1. Casting – Casting is a manufacturing process in which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify.
  2. Forging – Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces.
  3. Rolling- A billet is passed through rollers to create a sheet
  4. Fabrication- Metal fabrication is the building of metal structures by cutting, bending, and assembling processes.
  5. Cold Working-Cold working refers to the process of strengthening a metal by plastic deformation.
  6. Extrusion- A work piece, of a certain length and cross section, is forced to flow through a die of a smaller cross sectional area, thus forming the work to the new cross section.
  • Alloy

An alloy is a mixture of metals or a mixture of a metal and another element. Common alloys are steel , cast iron, stainless steel, aluminium alloys , copper-nickel alloys and nickel based alloys, etc.

Unlike pure metals, most alloys do not have a single melting point, but a melting range in which the material is a mixture of solid and liquid phases. The temperature at which melting begins is called the solidus, and the temperature when melting is just complete is called the liquidus.

  • Cement

A cement is a binder, a substance used in construction that sets and hardens and can bind other materials together. The most important types of cement are used as a component in the production of mortar in masonry, and of concrete, which is a combination of cement and an aggregate to form a strong building material.

Manufacturing –

  • Concrete

Concrete is a composite material composed of coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement that hardens over time. Most concretes used are lime-based concretes.Famous concrete structures include the Hoover Dam, the Panama Canal, and the Roman Pantheon. The earliest large-scale users of concrete technology were the ancient Romans, and concrete was widely used in the Roman Empire. The Colosseum in Rome was built largely of concrete, and the concrete dome of the Pantheon is the world’s largest unreinforced concrete dome. Today, large concrete structures (for example, dams and multi-storey car parks) are usually made with reinforced concrete.

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